FOR PT STUDENTS ONLY: ITPC

Course Outline in Introduction to Patient Care

 

TOPICS

1

 

OVERVIEW OF THE PRACTICE OF PHYSICAL THERAPY

 

ROLE OF PT IN PATIENT/CAREGIVER EDUCATION

 

Evaluation tools:

Pre-lecture quizzes

Post-lecture quizzes

Group Discussions

2

FOUNDATION OF  PHYSICAL HEALTH CARE PROCESS

  1. Interview and History-Taking
  2. Physical Examination
  3. Patient Management

 

Evaluation tools:

Pre-lecture quizzes

Post-lecture quizzes

Group Discussions

3

ESTABLISHING GOOD COMMUNICATION

 

THE PATIENT ADMISSION AND ASSURANCE OF PATIENT COMFORT

 

Evaluation tools:

Pre-lecture quizzes

Post-lecture quizzes

Group Discussions

 

5

 

BASIC FIRST AID

 

Evaluation tools:

Pre-lecture quizzes

Post-lecture quizzes

Group Discussions

6

Return demo of Basic First Aid

 

Evaluation tools:

Pre-lecture quizzes

Post-lecture quizzes

Mini– pracs

7

PROPER BODY MECHANICS

 

Evaluation tools:

Pre-lecture quizzes

Post-lecture quizzes

Mini- pracs

 

8

 

INTRODUCTION TO VITAL SIGN MONITORING

 

Evaluation tools:

Pre-lecture quizzes

Post-lecture quizzes

Mini- pracs

9

Return Demo of Vital Signs Monitoring

 

 

10 and 11

PR0PER BED POSITIONING AND DRAPING

BED MOBILITY AND TRANSFERS

 

 

Evaluation tools:

Pre-lecture quizzes

Post-lecture quizzes

Mini- pracs

12

Return Demo Of Proper Bed Positioning and Draping

Bed Mobility and Transfers

 

Evaluation tools:

Pre-lecture quizzes

Post-lecture quizzes

Mini- pracs

13 and 14

ASEPSIS AND ANTISEPSIS/ WOUND CARE

CARE  OF EQUIPMENT

( with Clinic Visit)

 

Evaluation tool:

Mini- pracs

References:

Principles of Patient Care by Pierson

Physical Assessment and Rehabilitation by Sullivan

Introduction to Physical Therapy and Patient Care by Reyes and Reyes

 

 

Topic: OVERVIEW OF THE PRACTICE OF PHYSICAL THERAPY

General Objectives:

  1. Understand the principles and concepts in rehabilitation medicine and the physical therapy
  2. Know the role of the physical therapist.
  3. Know the history of the physical therapy in the world and in the Philippines.

Specific Objectives:

  1. Differentiate rehabilitation medicine vs. physical medicine.
  2. Define the practice of Physical Therapy.
  3. Define the following terms according to the WHO definition:
  1. Impairment
  2. Disability
  3. HandicapDifferentiate the practice of Physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine from other medical specialty
  1. Trace the beginnings of the Physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine from other medical specialty.
  2. Trace the beginnings of the physical therapy profession itself and its commencement in the Philippines

 

Topic: ROLE OF PT IN PATIENT/CAREGIVER EDUCATION

General Objectives:

    1. Know the role of PT in patient/caregiver education
    2. Identify the role of  PT in patient/caregiver education.

Specific Objectives:

Define the following terminologies:

  1. Physical Therapy
  2. Caregiver
  3. Physical Therapy Assistant
  4. Physical Therapy Aide

1. Describe the role of PT in patient/caregiver education

2. Enumerate the role PT in patient/caregiver education

3. Demonstrate the role of PT in  patient/caregiver education

 

Topic: FOUNDATION OF  PHYSICAL HEALTH CARE PROCESS

General Objectives:

  1. Understand the physical health care process
  2. Know each part of the physical health care process

Specific Objectives:

  1. To be able to do the following processes:
  1. Interview and History-Taking
  2. Physical Examination
  3. Patient Management

Describe the specific tasks to be performed by the physical therapist during each part of the physical therapy health care process.

 

Topic: UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL REACTIONS TO ILLNESS

Differentiate the psychological and social reactions of different types of physical therapy patients:

  1. Orthopedic patient
  2. Rheumatic Patient
  3. Cardiorespiratory Patient
  4. Neurologic Patient

 

Topic: ESTABLISHING GOOD COMMUNICATION

General Objectives:

  1. Understand the elements of a good communication
  2. Learns the skills involved in establishing good rapport with the patient
  3. Know how to communicate ideas properly through written communication
  4. Learn the important elements of a patient interview

Specific Objectives:

1. Differentiate the following:

a. One-way vs Two-way communication

b. Written vs Oral Communication

2. Enumerate the elements of good oral and written communication

3. Describe how these different factors play a crucial role in communication

  1. use of appropriate non-verbal communication
  2. use of appropriate facial expression
  3. use of well-modulated voice

Topic: THE PATIENT ADMISSION AND ASSURANCE OF PATIENT COMFORT

General Objectives:

  1. Learn the skills needed in admitting a patient in a rehabilitation unit
  2. Observe the proper skills needed in admitting a patient in a rehabilitation unit.
  3. Demonstrate the skills in ensuring patient’s comfort.

Specific Objectives:

  1. Describe an ideal procedure in admitting patients with orthopaedic, rheumatologic, cardiorespiratory and neurologic conditions.
  2. Enumerate practical ways to ensure patients comfort

 

Topic: BASIC FIRST AID

General Objectives:

1. Learn the basic skills in administering basic first aid in common medical emergencies.

2. Demonstrate the skills in applying first aid in common medical emergencies

Specific Objectives:

  1. Identify the common medical emergencies that warrant first aid treatment.
  2. Know and identify the symptoms associated to these common medical emergencies
  3. Differentiate artificial respiration from cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  4. Know and Demonstrate the steps in conducting artificial respiration.
  5. Know and Demonstrate the basic steps in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

 

Topic: PROPER BODY MECHANICS

General Objectives:

  1. Know the principles of proper body mechanics.
  2. Know the importance of observing proper posture in the physical therapy profession
  3. Knowing the principles of proper patient positioning in various conditions

 

Specific Objectives:

  1. Define posture and body mechanics
  2. Describe the appropriate position of the head, trunk and extremities in standing, sitting and lying
  3. Knowing the different techniques in observing proper body mechanics.

 

Topic: INTRODUCTION TO VITAL SIGN MONITORING

General Objectives:

  1. Know the principles of vital signs monitoring
  2. Appreciate the importance of monitoring the vital signs of a patient
  3. Know and identify the tools in monitoring vital signs
  4. Demonstrate the skills assessing the following vital signs:
  1. Blood Pressure
  2. Pulse
  3. Respiration
  4. Body Temperature

 

  1. Communicate and Interpret the results taken

 

Specific Objectives:

  1. Define the following:
    1. Vital Signs
    2. Blood Pressure
    3. Respiration
  2. State the importance of Vital Signs
  3. Explain the following terminologies:
    1. Thermoregulation
    2. Regulation of BP and Pulse Rate
    3. Regulation of Respiration
  4. Enumerate and explain the factors that affect vital signs
  5. Describe the parameters and correct technique in assessing pulse
  6. Identify the sites in assessing pulse
  7. Define the following:
    1. Basal Pressure
    2. Systolic
    3. Diastolic
    4. Pulse Pressure
  8. Identify and explain the methods in determining blood pressure
  9. Explain the steps in getting the blood pressure
  10. Describe the parameters and correct technique in assessing respiration
  11. Describe the parameters and correct technique in assessing body temperature
  12. Describe the different methodologies in assessing temperature
  13. know the normal values in vital sign monitoring

 

Topic:              PR0PER BED POSITIONING AND DRAPING

General Objectives:

  1. Learn and apply .the principles of proper bed positioning
  2. Learn and apply .the principles of preventive positioning for various conditions
  3. Learn and apply .the principles of proper draping

 

Specific Objectives:

  1. Define the following terminologies:
  1. Patient Positioning
  2. Preventive Positioning
  3. Draping
  4. Fowler’s Position
  5. Semi-Fowler’s position
  6. Trendelenburg
  7. Reverse Trendelendurg
  8. Contour
  9. Hyperextension
  1. State the importance/purpose of proper bed positioning, preventive positioning and draping
  2. Describe the appropriate position in supine, prone, side lying, sitting and standing
  3. Differentiate and demonstrate the following positions:

 

  1. State the guiding principles for proper bed positioning
  2. Perform the proper positioning for a patient
  3. Enumerate the supportive tools or aids used in proper bed positioning, preventive positioning and draping
  4. State the rationale for draping
  5. Perform proper draping techniques for the following parts to be treated
  1. Upper Back
  2. Lower Back
  3. Shoulder Area
  4. Thigh Area

 

  1. Demonstrate preventive positioning for the following conditions:
  1. Edema
  2. Pressure Sores
  3. Stroke
  4. Burns/Grated Skin
  5. Hyperextension
  6. Difficulty in Breathing
  7. Contracture and Adhesions
  8. Acutely inflamed joints

 

Topic: BED MOBILITY AND TRANSFERS

 

General Objectives:

  1. Learn the basic principles of bed mobility and transfer technique.
  2. Apply the concepts and principles of bed mobility and transfer technique
  3. Develop and demonstrate the different techniques of bed mobility and transfers

 

Specific Objectives:

  1. Define the following terms:
  1. Bed Mobility
  2. Transfers
  1. Classify transfer technique into independent , semi-independent and dependent transfer.
  2. Enumerate the different types of transfer techniques
  3. Explain the steps in performing transfer technique to a patient
  4. Observe the general precaution for doing transfer techniques for various conditions.
  5. Use of proper body mechanics in doing transfer
  6. Explain the technique in doing bed mobility skills
  7. Teach patient in doing bed mobility skills

 

Topic: ASEPSIS AND ANTISEPSIS

 

General Objectives:

  1. Know the principles of asepsis and antisepsis
  2. Know the different methods of  asepsis and antisepsis
  3. Develop skills and demonstrate the methods of asepsis and antisepsis

 

Specific Objectives:

  1. Define the following
  1. Asepsis
  2. Antisepsis
  3. Sterilization
  4. Disinfections
  5. Antiseptic
  6. Disinfectant
  7. Germicide or Bactericide
  8. Debridement

 

  1. Explain the steps in performing antisepsis
  2. Apply the different methods of sterilization
  1. Mechanical Methods
  2. Thermal Methods
  3. Chemical Methods
  4. Physical Methods

 

  1. Explain the steps in performing antisepsis
  2. Apply the different methods of sterilization
  3. Explain the rationale of observing antisepsis

 

Topic: CARE  OF EQUIPMENT

 

General Objective:

  1. Learn the procedures in the proper care of equipment
  2. Demonstrate proper steps in the care of equipments

 

Specific Objectives:

  1. Identify the basic steps in operating common physical therapy equipments and modalities
  2. Describe the different modalities commonly used in Physical Therapy
  3. Know the proper procedure in the after care of Physical Therapy Equipment

 

Grading System:

Lec/Lab

Attendance                             : 10%

Class Participation                  : 20%                                                   Prelim              : 30%

Individual                                                                                   Midterm          : 30%

Group Activity                                                                            Finals               : 30%

Quizzes/mini-pracs                  : 30%                                                   Class Output   : 10%

Long Exam/grand-pracs          : 40%

Laboratory requirements:

Kines suit

Slippers / flip flops

Pillows

Mattresses

Towels for draping

Thermometer- both electronic and mercurial

Sphygmomanometer- both electronic and manual

Stethoscope

Different types of bandage

Gauze

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If we only tell the TRUTH to our YOUTH… they will fully embrace it…

When i asked my students to research about Dr. Edward Green and Dr. Brian Clowes and their work about condoms- i don’t need to explain anymore about the deadly downside of using condoms, they understood the message. All that i have done is guide them to the right reading material and advise them to compare what the media personalities are saying and decide for themselves as to who is more credible.. This is a pattern i noticed… I only guided them to find out the TRUTH… and the TRUTH will do the rest…If only the adults themselves search for the TRUTH and promote it and guide our youth… then there is HOPE…

Videos taken from: thewayofthemaster youtube videos… thank you!

HALLOWEEN FUN!

HALLOWEEN FUN!

Photo taken from http://wikibase.info/wb-what-is-musical-tone

I have long suspected that the Devil has a super PhD in Psychology, having observed men since the beginning of Creation. He has used all these knowledge into his advantage and he could easily dupe men into doing things without them being aware that it could lead to self-destruction ( his ultimate goal, by the way) . Everything seems harmless…think again…

Teaching kids about Halloween- displaying images of creatures from hell and making children imitate them- as their concept of fun- is IRRESPONSIBLE. Seeing institutions both sectarian/non-sectarian and parents practice pagan Halloween and make children wear Halloween costumes only meant they have lost sensitivity or their brains on the effect of these things on the minds of children. They are supposed to be praying for the souls of the Dead and not imitate ghastly creatures, violence, killing and hatred- all in the guise of fun! Children should be imitating the Saints- not witches, warlocks and vampires. Trick or treat is like telling children it’s alright to play tricks on people and get revenge on them if they don’t give them what they want- a mind conditioning that makes most of them grew up into adulthood with this kind of mentality. Turning thoughts and images of violence such as these:

Taken from : http://cityrag.com/2007/10/halloween-food/

As concepts for fun- is weird, definitely deviant and it’s the adults who are setting these kinds of examples on children- making them dysfunctional adults themselves in the future. Now, are we still wondering why some of our youth are becoming weird as they grow up? Parents and Institutional administrators, wake up! The youth of today are the future leaders tomorrow, we must safeguard not only their physical health but also their psychological and spiritual health- all are interrelated.

THE TRUE SHEPHERD- share video with your Priests and Pastors

Photo courtesy of www.StJohnsMCC.org

According to Wikipedia A shepherd (pronounced /ˈʃɛpərd/) is a person who tends, feeds or guards flocks of sheep.7

This is exactly what Jesus told Peter in John 21: 15-17  15When they had finished eating, Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon son of John, do you truly love me more than these?”  “Yes, Lord,” he said, “you know that I love you.”  Jesus said, “Feed my lambs.”  16Again Jesus said, “Simon son of John, do you truly love me?”  He answered, “Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.” Jesus said, “Take care of my sheep.”  17The third time he said to him, “Simon son of John, do you love me?” Peter was hurt because Jesus asked him the third time, “Do you love me?” He said, “Lord, you know all things; you know that I love you.” Jesus said, “Feed my sheep.

Aside from feeding the flock with the Bread of Life, The Holy Eucharist, Peter should feed his flock with TRUTH even with an existing threat of persecution as a proof of his love for Jesus.  In this video a Priest was persecuted for telling the Truth about homosexuality and its his Lukewarm Bishop who persecuted him. The reason given is the 30 pieces of silver.  The Priest is just  doing his job properly- tending, caring and feeding his flock by telling the Truth because lies, misconceptions and delusions can lead to self-destruction. Please see scientific reasons why homosexuality leads to self-destruction in my previous post titled Homosexuality and its Health Risks.

Video taken from realcatholictv.com you tube videos.

SCIENCE AND THEOLOGY- HIGHLY COMPLEMENTARY

Science and Theology are like Brother Sun and Sister Moon

 IF YOU LOVE SOMEONE, you want to know everything about him, want to be with him, want to see him smile, want to serve him… 🙂

Theology is the study of God- and of course if you love God, you want to know everything about HIM -including His likes and dislikes (the ten commandments) hobbies, His Mother, His Father, His friends… thus, the many branches of Theology. Knowing about Him will make you want to serve Him.

If you agree that GOD made this Universe, including mankind, both seen and the unseen. Then you ought to be in love with Science too, because science echoes the Word of God, Science reflects the majesty of the Creator through the Study of the Creation which includes the microscopic  and electromagnetic radiations etc..not visible to the human eye.

Anatomy- Study of the structure of Man.

Physiology- Study of the Functional processes of Man.

Astronomy- study of celestial bodies, the galaxies and the stars.

Geology- study of the solid Earth.

Etcetera etcetera….

My point is, if you are a Scientist you study the Creation. If you are a Theologian, you study the Creator. To understand Creation, you must know the Creator, to understand the Creator you must know the Creation. You see… they are not contradictory but complementary!  They are like Brother Sun and Sister Moon – both with the goal to glorify God. 🙂    Hmmm I miss someone…

Thanks to google search engine for the image…

THE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH BILL and the INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING

I asked my former students in Bioethics, a subtopic in Ethics in Physical Therapy and my students in Human Sexuality a subtopic in the subject Psychiatry in Physical Therapy  to research about the effectivity of condoms, the side effects of hormonal contraceptives, and to find out if the overpopulation theory is true and to report it in class. With this assignment they were able to find out for themselves about the deeper issues not usually discussed by the proponents of the reproductive health bill. I usually give them pertinent assignments in preparation for our discussion, so we no longer have to waste so much time and effort in correcting misconceptions in one lecture session. Now that they have already found out themselves that the use of condoms and hormonal contraceptives is not equivalent to safe sex but equivalent to deadly sex and that overpopulation is a myth, before they attend my lecture- we could have progress in our discussion.

Since we are in an institution of higher learning, a University,  we must speak from evidence based research. This is the reason why i get disappointed when i hear Professors with high academic ranking talking and spreading misconceptions and not even taking the responsibility of correcting it when facts are already presented to them. I also got disappointed when a student writer in our university newsletter wrote that she cannot find anything wrong about the reproductive health bill- because all that is written about it is the improvement of maternal and child health and reproductive health. The student journalist did not even researched deeper, like if the measures proposed to attain the goals in the bill really equates to reproductive health- like the categorizing of hormonal contraceptives- a proven carcinogen and a risk factor for stroke and heart attacks as essential medicines- to be funded by taxpayers’ money and to be mass distributed. The newsletter was even funded by the student government and they did not learn about the substantial facts in that column, it is a waste and misuse of student government funds.

If you are in a beauty parlor or a market place- you are entitled to promote your misconceptions and your own uneducated opinion but in an institution of higher learning,  an uneducated opinion has no place and is irresponsible. I hope as educators we realize this and take responsibility for the good of our students- the youth, the future leaders of our beloved country.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST IN CANCER RESEARCH AND THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

Ever wondered why  Medical Doctors still prescribe dangerous drugs including the Birth control pills, which the WHO repeatedly declared in 1997, 2005 and September 2011 as a proven human carcinogen? It’s because they trusted research- which any ordinary human being would do. Unfortunately, majority of these research cannot be trusted, especially if they were funded or done by people with financial interests. Here are some of the data i gathered:

The following are related literatures that showed why there are some studies claiming the beneficial effects of dangerous drugs and downplaying its side effects, like in the case of hormonal contraceptives. All of the titles speak for itself :

  1. Medical Journals are an extension of the Marketing Arm of Pharmaceutical Companies (Smith, 2005)
  2. The Financing of Drug Trials by Pharmaceutical Companies and Its Consequences (Schott, Pachl, Limbach, Gundert-Remy,Klaus, Wolf-Dieter, 2010)
  3. Bekelman JE, Li Y, Gross CP. Scope and impact  of financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research. A systematic review.  JAMA 2003; 289: 454-65.
  4. Hussain A, Smith R. Declaring financial competing interests: survey of five general medical journals. BMJ 2001;323:263-4. (only 1.4 percent out of 3,642 articles declared competing financial interest)
  5. Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review BMJ, May 2003; 326: 1167 – 1170. Joel Lexchin, Lisa A Bero, Benjamin Djulbegovic, and Otavio Clark showed that Company sponsored research are more likely to be published and  Studies sponsored by pharmaceutical companies were more likely to have outcomes favouring the sponsor than were studies with other sponsors (odds ratio 4.05; 95% confidence interval 2.98 to 5.51; 18 comparisons).
  6. Vandenbroucke JP, Helmerhorst FM, Frits R Rosendaal FR. Competing interests and controversy about third generation oral contraceptives. BMJ 2000; 320: 381.
  7. Mali SN, Dudhgaonkar S, Bachewar NP. Evaluation of rationality of promotional drug literature using World Health Organization guidelines. Indian J Pharmacol 2010;42:267-72 They concluded that Pharmaceutical industries did not follow the WHO guidelines while promoting their products, thus aiming to satisfying their commercial motive rather than fulfill the educational aspect of promotion.
  8. Medical Papers by Ghostwriters Pushed Therapy (Singer, 2009)Top of Form-Newly unveiled court documents show that ghostwriters paid by a pharmaceutical company played a major role in producing 26 scientific papers backing the use of hormone replacement therapy in women, suggesting that the level of hidden industry influence on medical literature is broader than previously known.
  9. Hormone-based contraceptives are a multi-billion dollar industry, and most of the research supporting the safety and efficacy of these was funded by the companies that profit from their sale. Not surprisingly, side-effects and health risks are minimized by drug manufacturers. Though fairly effective, actual failure rates of these methods are much higher when estimated based on nationwide surveys of actual women, rather than research studies with carefully selected couples. And, when something goes wrong, neither drug companies nor researchers are in a rush to publicize their failures. Even if investigators prepared reports describing failures, journal editors would probably not publish them. (Contracept.org, 2011.)

DR. MERCOLA also recently gave light on this matter, here is the article he posted on his website:

New Discovery Shakes the Foundation of Cancer Research

Posted By Dr. Mercola | October 15 2011 | 37,262 views
cancer research fraud

In a scandal that has reverberated around the world of cancer research, the Office of Research Integrity at the U.S. Department of Health found that a Boston University cancer scientist fabricated his findings. His work was published in two journals in 2009, and he’s been ordered to retract them. But important studies by other scientists like those at the Mayo Clinic, who based their work on his findings, could now make 10 years of their studies worthless, according to commentary in Gaia Health.

It seems fairly evident that the cancer industrial complex is a highly lucrative, well-oiled system that tends to support funding for expensive drug treatments that don’t address the cause of the problem, and have yet to make a significant dent in the decrease of the overall cancer rate in the US despite investing hundreds of billions of dollars. Much of the support comes from flawed and biased “research” studies that support the use of expensive drugs as detailed in the featured articles.

Researchers, too, are well aware of the notoriety and money to be found in cancer research … particularly what may be deemed successful cancer research (which unfortunately is often measured by the discovery of new drug treatments). But, as with many areas of medical research, it’s important to read between the lines of “scientifically proven” studies, even those that are well accepted.

Often what you’ll find is the research gives the perception of science when really it is a heavily manipulated process designed to control and deceive. Case in point, here again we have an example of widely accepted, published research that turned out to be fabricated.

10 Years of Cancer Research Down the Drain

The Office of Research Integrity (ORI) at the U.S. Department of Health reported in August 2011 that final action has been taken against Sheng Wang, PhD, of Boston University School of Medicine, Cancer Research Center. ORI states:

“The Respondent engaged in research misconduct by fabricating data that were included in two (2) published papers.”

This includes:

  • Oncogene February 2009, which found that HIC1, a protein thought to suppress tumor growth, is a “central molecule in a novel mechanism controlling cell growth and that the disruption of this HIC1-mediated pathway may lead to abnormal cell proliferation and, ultimately, cancer.”
  • Molecular Endocrinology December 2009, which found “reintroducing HIC1 into resistant breast cancer cells restored their sensitivity to the estrogen antagonists, indicating the existence of a novel regulatory mechanism for growth control of breast cancer cells.”

Specifically, six of the eight figures in the Oncogene paper and six of the seven figures in the Molecular Endocrinology study were said to contain data from fabricated experiments. Though Wang is now required to retract the papers, and he reportedly stopped working for Boston University in July, he will only be ineligible for federal funding for 2 years.

Further, the fabricated research may continue to live on, as it has been cited by other studies and once a finding is accepted in the medical community, it’s very hard to make it go away. Unfortunately, scientific retractions are actually becoming increasingly common.

As the Wall Street Journal reported:

“Just 22 retraction notices appeared in 2001, but 139 in 2006 and 339 last year. Through seven months of this year, there have been 210, according to Thomson Reuters Web of Science, an index of 11,600 peer-reviewed journals world-wide …

At the Mayo Clinic, a decade of cancer research, partly taxpayer-funded, went down the drain when the prestigious Minnesota institution concluded that intriguing data about harnessing the immune system to fight cancer had been fabricated. Seventeen scholarly papers published in nine research journals had to be retracted. A researcher, who protests his innocence, was fired. In another major flameout, 18 research journals have said they are planning to retract a total of 89 published studies by a German anesthesiologist …”

Fabricated Research is More Common Than You Might Think

Peer-reviewed research published in medical journals gets the golden star of approval in the media, yet many, if not most, of the findings are incredibly misleading. One of the best exposé’s into this muddled system came from none other than Dr. Marcia Angell, who was the former editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).

In her book The Truth about Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What to Do About It, she exposed many examples of why medical studies often cannot be trusted, and said flat out:

“Trials can be rigged in a dozen ways, and it happens all the time.”

For instance, in 2009 Dr. Scott Reuben, who was a well-respected, prominent anesthesiologist, former chief of acute pain of the Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Mass. and a former professor at Tufts University’s medical school, allegedly fabricated the data for 21 studies!

Dr. Reuben succeeded in getting numerous studies published, and those studies were accepted as fact and swayed the prescribing habits of doctors. It was only due to a routine audit raising a few red flags that a larger investigation was later launched.

So how did those false studies, or any studies for that matter, become worthy of being published? Part of the problem may be the peer-review process itself, as this puts researchers in charge of policing other researchers’ results, and most do not want to insult a fellow researcher’s work with negative comments.

As written in Gaia Health:

“It’s all about money. Get published in a major medical journal and your future is made. Most peer reviewers are doing their own studies. That’s what makes them peers. They want to be able to publish. Therefore, they are not particularly inclined to make more than perfunctory negative comments. Obviously, they don’t want to alienate the authors of papers, since they either are or hope to become published themselves.

Peer review is a farce. The only kind of review that makes real sense is professional independent reviewers. Yet, for decades we’ve had peer review trotted out as the be-all and end-all in determining the legitimacy of papers. It’s been unquestioned, while a little examination of the concept demonstrates that it’s nearly certain to result in fraudulent work being passed as good science.”

It’s almost impossible to find out what happens in the vetting process, as peer reviewers are unpaid, anonymous and unaccountable. And although the system is based on the best of intentions, it lacks consistent standards and the expertise of the reviewers can vary widely from journal to journal.

Given that cancer research is such a lucrative business right now — the National Cancer Institute, which gave the grant money to support Dr. Sheng Wang’s fabricated research, had a $5.1 billion budget for fiscal year 2010 — the stakes are exceptionally high. So it stands to reason that it may be subject to even more fraud and manipulation than less lucrative research prospects.

As The Economist reported, there were more new cancer drugs in development in 2010 than any other therapeutic area. Drug makers are well aware that a blockbuster cancer drug could easily earn them profits in the billions, even if the drug is only borderline effective. It is abundantly clear that profit is a primary motive of these companies so it should not be a surprise that they have moved in this direction, and this is where the abundance of research is focused as well.

Why You Might Want to Think Twice Before Donating to Anti-Cancer Charities

A lot of people put their faith in charity organizations like the American Cancer Society (ACS), dutifully donating money to help in the “war on cancer.”  But in the report titled American Cancer Society—More Interested In Accumulating Wealth Than Saving Lives, Dr. Samuel S. Epstein, chairman of the Cancer Prevention Coalition, plainly lays to bare the many conflicts of interest that hamper the effectiveness of this organization.

For example, the ACS has close financial ties to both makers of mammography equipment and cancer drugs. But that’s just for starters. Other conflicts of interest include ties to, and financial support from, the pesticide-, petrochemical-, biotech-, cosmetics-, and junk food industries—the very industries whose products are the primary contributors to cancer!

The ACS, along with the National Cancer Institute, virtually exclusively focus on cancer research and the diagnosis and chemical treatment of cancer. Preventive strategies, such as avoiding chemical exposures, receive virtually no consideration at all.

“Giant corporations, which profited handsomely while they polluted air, water, the workplace, and food with a wide range of carcinogens, remain greatly comforted by the silence of the ACS. This silence reflected a complex of mindsets fixated on diagnosis, treatment, and basic genetic research, together with ignorance, indifference, and even hostility to prevention. Not surprisingly, the incidence of cancer over past decades has escalated, approximately parallel to its increased funding,” Dr. Epstein writes.

Many also do not realize that when you donate money to the American Cancer Society, the majority of it may never go further than the bank accounts of its numerous well-paid executives.

Meanwhile, global cancer rates have doubled in the last three decades, and their “war on cancer” strategy completely ignores, and oftentimes denies, the obvious links between cancer and toxic exposures through pesticide-laden foods, toxic personal care products, cancer-causing medical treatments and drugs, and industrial pollution. We CAN turn this trend around, but to do so the medical and research communities must stop focusing on drug treatments and overlooking the methods that can actually have a significant impact on preventing this disease.

My Top 12 Tips for Cancer Prevention

Rather than put your health in the hands of cancer researchers willing to do just about anything to discover the next cancer drug breakthrough, take control of your health by following the cancer-preventive lifestyle changes below.

  1. Avoid Fructose and Sugar

    It’s quite clear that if you want to avoid cancer, or are currently undergoing cancer treatment, you absolutely MUST avoid all forms of sugar — especially fructose — and this is largely due to its relation to insulin resistance. According to Lewis Cantley, director of the Cancer Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center at Harvard Medical School, as much as 80 percent of all cancers are “driven by either mutations or environmental factors that work to enhance or mimic the effect of insulin on the incipient tumor cells,” Gary Taubes reports.

    Some cancer centers, such as the Cancer Centers of America, have fully embraced this knowledge and place their patients on strict low-sugar, low-grain diets. But conventional medicine in general has been woefully lax when it comes to highlighting the health dangers of this additive.

    As a standard recommendation, I strongly advise keeping your TOTAL fructose consumption below 25 grams per day including fruits. But for most people it would also be wise to limit your fructose from fruit to 15 grams or less, as you’re virtually guaranteed to consume “hidden” sources of fructose if you drink beverages other than water and eat processed food.

  2. Optimize Your Vitamin D Level

    There’s overwhelming evidence pointing to the fact that vitamin D deficiency plays a crucial role in cancer development. Researchers within this field have estimated that about 30 percent of cancer deaths — which amounts to 2 million worldwide and 200,000 in the United States — could be prevented each year simply by optimizing the vitamin D levels in the general population.

    On a personal level, you can decrease your risk of cancer by MORE THAN HALF simply by optimizing your vitamin D levels with sun exposure. And if you are being treated for cancer it is likely that higher blood levels—probably around 80-90 ng/ml—would be beneficial.

    If the notion that sun exposure actually prevents cancer is still new to you, I highly recommend you watch my one-hour vitamin D lecture to clear up any confusion. It’s important to understand that the risk of skin cancer from the sun comes only from excessive exposure.

  3. Exercise

    If you are like most people, when you think of reducing your risk of cancer, exercise doesn’t immediately come to mind. However, there is some fairly compelling evidence that exercise can slash your risk of cancer. One of the primary ways exercise lowers your risk for cancer is by reducing elevated insulin levels, which creates a low sugar environment that discourages the growth and spread of cancer cells.

    For example, physically active adults experience about half the incidence of colon cancer as their sedentary counterparts, and women who exercise regularly may reduce their breast cancer risk by 20 to 30 percent compared to those who are inactive.It’s important to include a large variety of techniques in your exercise routine, such as strength training, aerobics, core-building activities, and stretching. Most important of all, however, is to make sure you include high-intensity, burst-type exercise, such as those described in my Peak Fitness program.

    These exercises activate your super-fast twitch muscle fibers, which can increase your body’s natural production of human growth hormone. For detailed instructions, please see this previous article.

  4. Get appropriate amounts of high quality animal-based omega-3 fats.
  5. Eat according to your nutritional type. The potent anti-cancer effects of this principle are very much underappreciated. When we treat cancer patients in our clinic this is one of the most powerful anti-cancer strategies we have.
  6. Engage in activities that help you reduce your stress levels, such as exercise, meditation, journaling, music, gardening, etc. Even the CDC states that 85 percent of disease is caused by emotions. It is likely that this factor may be more important than all the other physical ones listed here, so make sure this is addressed.
  7. Only 25 percent of people eat enough vegetables, so by all means eat as many vegetables as you are comfortable with. Ideally, they should be fresh and organic. Cruciferous vegetables in particular have been identified as having potent anti-cancer properties. Remember that carb nutritional types may need up to 300 percent more vegetables than protein nutritional types.
  8. Maintain an ideal body weight.
  9. Get appropriate amounts of high-quality sleep.
  10. Reduce your exposure to environmental toxins like pesticides, household chemical cleaners, synthetic air fresheners and air pollution.
  11. Reduce your use of cell phones and other wireless technologies, and implement as many safety strategies as possible if/when you cannot avoid their use.
  12. Boil, poach or steam your foods, rather than frying or charbroiling them. Better yet eat as many of your foods raw as you can.

Please look for my previous post titled: Evidenced based cancer cure